What does IP Rating mean?
IP Rating means Ingress Protection Rating (Also known as International Protection Marking) which represents a code that the manufacturer is supposed to specify so that the client knows if the product is protected against intrusions of solid-state particles or liquid particles. The numeric rating helps people take better care of the products they buy and to know how to store them in proper conditions. Most electronics manufacturers specify complicated details related to their products, but an IP Rating would be much easier to understand if people are informed about it. The IP code is a transparent tool that can help anyone buy products of better quality, without being misled by jargon and unclear specifications.
Ingress Protection is a standard rating recognized worldwide that anyone can use, regardless of their location. These electrotechnology standards are created to let people know what capabilities the product's casing has, from water to solid object protection. The code looks like this: the short version of Ingress Protection, which is IP, followed by two digits or the letter X. The first digit represents the resistance of the object against solid objects, while the second represents the protection offered against liquids. The letter X signifies that the product was not tested for the respective category (either solids or liquids).
Solid Object Protection
An electronic product's protection against solid-state objects refers to access of hazardous parts inside the product. The ranking goes from 0 to 6, where 0 means no protection at all. If the product has a solid object protection of 1 to 4, it is protected against elements that are over 1mm, from hands and fingers to small tools or wires. The minimum protection recommended is an IP3X standard. For protection against dust particles, the product has to feature at least an IP5X standard. Ingress of dust is a major cause of damage in terms of electronics, so if the product is meant to be used in dusty locations, an IP6X, the maximum protection assured, should be a plus.
This is also called intrusion protection. It is paramount to choose the most appropriate IP Rating for an electronic product, as this influences the product's resistance to charged electricity contact, which may lead to product damage in time. The electronic components which are covered in thin polymeric films resist to dusty environmental conditions much longer.
0 - No protection assured
1 - Protection assured against solid objects that are over 50mm (e.g. hands).
2 - Protection assured against solid objects that are over 12.5mm (e.g. fingers).
3 - Protection assured against solid objects that are over 2.5mm (e.g. wires).
4 - Protection assured against solid objects that are over 1mm (e.g. tools and small wires).
5 - Protected against quantity of dust that could interfere with the normal operation of the product but not fully dust tight. Complete protection against solid objects.
6 - Fully dust tight and complete protection against solid objects.
Liquids Ingress Protection
The same goes for liquids. Liquids Ingress Protection is also known as moisture protection and the values can be found between 0 and 8. An additional 9K has been added recently to the Ingress Protection code. As in the case mentioned above, 0 means that the product is not protected in any way from the intrusion of liquid particles inside the case. Waterproof products won't necessarily resist when placed underwater for a long period of time. Exposure to small amounts of water is enough for damaging a product with a low IP Rating.
You might have come across products that have ratings like IPX4, IPX5 or even IPX7. As mentioned earlier, the first digit represents solid object protection but very often manufacturers don't test their products for dust ingression. That is why the first digit is simply replaced by an X. But that does not mean that the product is not protected against dust. If it has a fairly good protection against water then it's likely to be protected against dust as well.
Finally, the 9K value refers to products that can be cleaned using steam and support the effects of high-pressure water jets, regardless of the direction they come from. As mentioned before, for a product that is listed as an IPXX, no tests were run in order to find out whether the products are water and dust resistant or not. It is important to understand that an XX rating doesn't mean that the product is not protected at all. Contacting the manufacturer and always reading the user's guide is mandatory before putting the electronic device in special conditions.
0 - No protection assured.
1 - Protection assured against vertical drops of water.
2 - Protection assured against vertical drops of water when the product is tilted up to 15° from its normal position.
3 - Protection assured against direct sprays of water at any angle up to 60°.
4 - Protection assured against water splashing from any angle.
5 - Protection assured against water jets projected by a nozzle (6.3mm) from any angle.
6 - Protection assured against powerful water jets projected by a nozzle (12.5mm) from any angle.
7 - Protection assured against water immersion at a depth between 15 cm and 1 meter for maximum 30 minutes.
8 - Protection assured against long periods of water immersion at a depth of over 1 meter.
9 - Protection assured against the effects of high-pressure water jets and steam cleaning.
Meanings Of Some Common IP Ratings
Protection assured against solid objects that are over 2.5mm (e.g. wires) and Protection assured against vertical drops of water when the product is tilted up to 15° from its normal position.
A product with an IP54 rating is protected against dust ingress sufficient to prevent the product from operating normally but it's not dust tight. The product is fully protected against solid objects and splashing of water from any angle.
If you see IP65 written on a product, this means it is fully dust tight and protected against solid objects. Plus it is protected against water jets projected by a nozzle (6.3mm) from any angle.
A rating of IP66 means that the product is fully protected against dust and solid objects. Moreover, the product is protected against powerful water jets projected by a nozzle (12.5mm) from any directions.
YM Power focus on making lithium ion batteries for low speed electric vehicles including for low speed electric car, electric electric motorcycle, electric scooter, electric skateboard, electric wheelchair, etc and for industrial vehicles, such as AGV, forklift, etc. Usually the IP rate of the lithium battery packs is at IP54 and best is at IP65.